Standards On Education, Training Research And Publication
1. Why is this an ethical dilemma? Which APA Ethical Principles help frame the nature of the dilemma?
2. Does this situation meet the standards set by the duty to protect statue? How might whether or not Dr. Yeung’s state includes researchers under such a statute influence Dr. Yeung’s ethical decision making? How might the fact that Dr. Yeung is a research psychologist without training or licensure in clinical practice influence the ethical decision?
3. How are APA Ethical Standards 2.01a b, and c; 2.04; 3.04; 3.06; 4.01; 4.02; and 10.10a relevant to this case? Which other standards might apply?
4. What are Dr. Yeung’s ethical alternatives for resolving this dilemma? Which alternative best reflects the Ethics Code aspirational principle and enforceable standard, as well as legal standards and Dr. Yeung’s obligations to stakeholders?
5. What steps should Dr. Yeung take to ethically implement her decision and monitor its effects?
Fisher, C. B. (2013). Decoding the ethics code: A practical guide for psychologists. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
PART3- I will post part 3 Tuesday, it will consist of two power-point slides.
Psychologists responsible for education and training programs have an obligation to establish relationships of loyalty and trust with their institutions, students, and members of society who rely on academic institutions to provide the knowledge, skills, and career opportunities claimed by the specific degree program (Principle B: Fidelity and Responsibility). This requires knowledge of system change and competencies in academic program management and leadership skills (APA, 2012f; Standard 2.03, Maintaining Competence). Psychologists responsible for administering academic programs must ensure that course requirements meet recognized standards in the relevant field and that students have sufficient practicum, externship, and research experiences to meet the career outcome goals articulated by the program (Wise & Cellucci, 2014).
- Department chairs and other faculty responsible for undergraduate curricula development need to ensure that course requirements expose undergraduates majoring and minoring in psychology and students taking survey courses to the knowledge and skills considered fundamental to the discipline.
- Chairs or directors of doctoral programs claiming to produce graduates competent to conduct psychological research need to ensure that students receive education and training in research ethics and the theoretical, methodological, and statistical skills required to competently conduct psychological science in the specific fields emphasized by the program (APA, 2011b; Fisher, Fried, & Feldman, 2009).
- Psychologists responsible for professional degree programs need to ensure that course requirements and field experiences meet those required by potential employers, relevant state or professional organizations for program accreditation, internship placements where relevant, and applicable individual licensure and credentialing bodies.
- Psychologists administering internship programs must ensure that supervisory and training experiences meet the standards of the specific areas of psychological practice claimed, appropriate state and professional accreditation criteria, and state licensing board requirements (APA, 2015e).
The term reasonable steps reflects recognition that despite a program administrator’s best efforts, there may be periods during which curriculum adjustments must be made in reaction to changes in faculty composition, departmental reorganizations, institutional demands, modifications in accreditation or licensure regulations, or evolving disciplinary standards.
Interprofessional Training for Practice and Research in Primary Care
Doctoral programs in psychology will increasingly need to equip students with the skills necessary for professional practice, quality improvement and outcomes research, and team management and consulting in the integrated patient care systems of the future. Systems such as patient-centered medical homes (PCMH) and accountable care organizations (ACO) will need psychologists trained in applying patient-centered, accountability-focused, evidence-based, and team-based approaches to enhancing access to quality (Belar, 2014; DeLeon, Sells, Cassidy, Waters, & Kasper, 2015; see also the section on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in Chapter 1). Program administrators need to be aware of evolving APA accreditation requirements for externships and internships that provide trainees with opportunities to acquire direct experience and supervision in interprofessional systems of care and when appropriate documentation of specialization as a basic credential for a practicing psychologist once licensed (Standard 7.01, Design of Education and Training Programs). Compliance with Standard 7.01 will also require curricula that foster competencies in the following:
- Implementation of ACA and related health policy goals and infrastructure
- Application of team science to outcome research within integrated health organizations
- Selection and integration of evidence-based practices within an interprofessional care model
- Appropriate integrated care patient electronic record keeping and billing
- Skills facilitating consultation with medical providers on behavioral management techniques to improve patient adherence to health care regimens
Readers might also refer to Standards 2.04, Bases for Scientific and Professional Judgments; 3.09, Cooperation with Other Professionals; 6.01 Documentation of Professional and Scientific Work and Maintenance of Records as well as Nash et al. (2013) and Rozensky (2014a, 2014 b is not kept pace with the rapid evolution and availability of online education. Distance learning using information technology raises complex questions regarding the adequacy of psychology programs to meet education and training requirements for a diverse student body from across the United States and in different countries. Psychologists administering online distance education might consider the following questions (Anderson & Simpson, 2007; Brey, 2006):
- Can the use of information technology ensure that the appropriate knowledge can be transmitted to students and that student acquisition of such knowledge can be appropriately evaluated?
- To what extent does the program meet accreditation, certification, licensure, or other requirements across different localities? Is the program description clear regarding the states or countries in which it meets such requirements (see also Standard 7.02, Descriptions of Education and Training Programs)?
- Does the use of web-based or Internet-mediated technology in higher education foster or undermine student diversity?
- Are the program admissions criteria and educational materials appropriate for the diversity of students who will apply for and be admitted into the program?
- Can experiential requirements be adequately provided, supervised, monitored, and evaluated at a distance through informational technology?
- Can the ethical values of the discipline be successfully transmitted and student ethical behavior adequately monitored through electronic media?
- Are faculty adequately trained in the use of online distance learning?
Department and program chairs and psychologists responsible for internship training programs must also ensure that prospective and current students have an accurate description of the nature of the academic and training programs to which they may apply or have been admitted. This standard of the APA Ethics Code (APA, 2010c) requires psychologists responsible for these programs to keep program descriptions up-to-date regarding (a) required coursework and field experiences; (b) educational and career objectives supported by the program; (c) current faculty or supervisory staff; (d) currently offered courses; and (e) the dollar amount of available student stipends and benefits, the process of applying for these, and the obligations incurred by students, interns, or postdoctoral fellows who receive stipends or benefits.
Standard 7.02 specifically obligates teaching psychologists to ensure that prospective and current students, externs, or interns are aware of program requirements to participate in personal psychotherapy or counseling, experiential groups, or any other courses or activities that require them to reveal personal thoughts or feelings. Many program descriptions now appear on university or institutional websites. Psychologists need to ensure to the extent possible that these websites are appropriately updated. The term reasonable steps recognizes that efforts to ensure up-to-date information may be constrained by publication schedules for course catalogs, webmasters not directly under the auspices of the department or program, and other institutional functions over which psychologists may have limited control.
- ☒ A psychology graduate department described itself as offering an industrial–organizational track that included paid summer placements at companies in the city in which the university is located. The required curriculum included only one class in industrial–organizational psychology taught by an adjunct professor. Other required courses for the industrial–organizational track consisted of traditional intelligence and personality test administration classes, test construction classes, and statistics courses offered by faculty in the department’s clinical and psychometric programs. For the past 2 years, the department had been able to place only one or two students in paid summer internships.
Need to Know: Language-Matching Training Experiences
The increasing language diversity of client/patient populations in the United States sometimes leads to matching bilingual graduate students with externship and internship populations for which their language skills are considered an advantage. Limiting bilingual trainees to work experiences with non-English-speaking clients or to one cultural–language group may deprive students of the broad educational training opportunities promised by the graduate or training program (Fields, 2010; see also Standard 3.08, Exploitative Relationships). Such assignments may also implicitly lead to misconceptions by bilingual and other students in the program that language competence is equivalent to multicultural treatment competence (Schwartz, Rodríguez, Santiago-Rivera, Arredondo, & Field, 2010). Faculty advisers and supervisors should actively assess bilingual students’ training needs as well as their comfort and desire to work with same-language populations to ensure these students are afforded the same quality of education, respect, and autonomy that other trainees enjoy (Schwartz et al., 2010). English-only-speaking supervisors who rely on a trainee’s language translations of sessions should also be aware that they may be providing feedback on clients that they cannot actually work with themselves (Standard 2.01b, Boundaries of Competence), and in some states, this lack of “proper” supervision might mean that the trainee is perceived to be practicing “independently” without a license (Schwartz et al., 2010).