PSY 501 – Developmental Psychology MCQs
Human Development: A Cultural Approach
First Edition, 2012
Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)
1. Who did developmental researchers focus on studying because they assumed that the processes of development were universal?
a. Mexicans b. Europeans c. Canadians d. Americans
2. What is the current total fertility rate (TFR) worldwide?
3. What is probably the oldest known conception of the life course, written about 3,000 years ago?
a. the Dharmashastras b. the Bible
c. the Koran d. the Talmud
4. What is Freud’s theory of human development?
a. bio-sexual theory
b. psychosexual theory c. sexual stage theory d. libido-drive theory
5. According to the text, what is a researcher’s idea about one possible answer to the question of interest?
a. a scientific idea b. a hypothesis
c. a proof d. a law
6. When participants are provided with specific responses to choose from on a questionnaire, what type of format is being used?
a. open-ended question format b. closed-question format
c. stream of consciousness format d. multiple choice format
7. What recessive disorder results in non-normal shaped blood cells that clog up blood vessels and cause pain, increased susceptibility to disease, and early death?
a. Tay-Sachs b. trisomy-21
c. sickle-cell anemia d. malaria
8. A person with an XY pairing of chromosomes is a , whereas a person with an XX pairing of chromosomes is a .
a. male; female b. female; male
c. homogenetic inheritance; polygenetic inheritance d. polygenetic inheritance; homogenetic inheritance
9. Who are generally carriers of X-linked disorders?
a. females b. males
c. individuals who have been exposed to teratogens d. individuals with a trisomy
10. The structure that will form the structures that will provide protection and nourishment for the newly formed organism is the .
a. umbilical cord b. placenta
c. embryonic disk d. trophoblast
11. By the end of the third week the neural tube begins to form. This structure will eventually become .
a. the skull and torso b. legs and arms
c. the spinal cord and brain
d. lungs and the digestive system
12. Children born with chromosomal problems are almost always born to parents with .
a. the very same chromosomal problem b. similar genetic disorders
c. above average intelligence
d. no genetic or chromosomal problems
13. According to the text, oxytocin is released from the . a. fetus’s liver
b. mother’s uterus c. fetus’s placenta
d. mother’s pituitary gland
14. During what stage is the umbilical cord usually cut and tied?
b. active labor
c. transitional labor
d. The third stage of labor
15. Compared to other animals, the birth process for human beings is complicated by the . a. size of the infant’s head
b. infant’s muscle to fat ratio
c. amount of amniotic fluid expelled
d. mother’s expectation of the birthing process
16. What are the “soft spots” on a neonate called?
b. cranium areas c. fontanels
d. soft spots
17. How long does it take before the neonate has regained all of the weight that he or she lost right after birth?
a. 2 weeks b. 3 weeks c. 4 weeks d. 5 weeks
18. For American infants, what percent are born with an Apgar score of 7 to 10?
19. One way that neonates’ sleep is distinctive is that they spend a high proportion of their sleep in .
a. alpha stage sleep b. a coma-like sleep
c. a position that is face down
d. rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
20. In cultures where babies are held or carried around much of the day . a. prolonged episodes of crying are common
b. prolonged episodes of crying are rare
c. they cry because infants need time alone
d. they cry because they sense that their mothers are frustrated with them
21. Growth and development proceed from the middle of the body outward, which is known as the .
a. head first, body second principle b. cephalocaudal principle
c. proximodistal principle d. top-down principle
22. As described in the text, which of the following are appropriate methods to soothe an infant who is teething?
a. the use of a teething ring, a cold drink, or topical pain relievers b. the use of pediatric oral dentures
c. the use of children’s acetaminophen or ibuprofen d. the use of a cotton ball that is soaked in whiskey
23. is a tiny gap between neurons. a. A neurotransmitter
b. The synapse c. A dendrite
24. When neuronal connections that are used become stronger and faster and the neuronal connections that are not used wither away, what is happening?
a. brain death
b. axonal withering c. synaptic pruning
d. intellectual development
25. What is the leading cause of death for infants between birth and one year of age in developed countries?
a. accidents b. SIDS
d. genetic disorders
26. An infant between the ages of birth and 2 would be in which of Piaget’s cognitive stages?
a. sensorimotor b. preoperational
c. concrete operations d. formal operations
27. Secondary circular reactions involve activity in relation to the . a. infant’s own body
c. external world d. siblings
28. What approach that attempts to understand cognitive development views development as continuous?
a. information-processing approach b. behavioral theory
c. Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory d. Typological Advancement theory
29. During toddlerhood children do not need as much of this to maintain a constant body temperature?
a. warm clothes b. mother’s body c. body hair
d. body fat
30. Which of the following is a protein deficiency that primarily affects toddlers in developing nations and leads to a range of symptoms such as lethargy, irritability, and thinning of hair?
b. micronutrients c. eczema
31. How many neurons does the brain contain when the toddler is 2 years old?
a. twice as many as at birth
b. four times as many as at birth c. half as many as at birth
d. the same total number of neurons
32. Two possible reasons why toddlers have an increased frequency of waking at night are . a. teething and an increased sense of self
b. increased physiological response and increased hormone production c. nocturnal enuresis and increased fidgeting
d. decreased autonomic nervous system and increased parasympathetic response
33. Piaget’s fifth sensorimotor stage is . a. simple reflexes
b. secondary circular reactions c. tertiary circular reactions
d. mental representations
34. is the basis of human language. a. Deferred imitation
b. Mental representation
c. Unconscious symbolism d. Object permanence
35. Which of the following are secondary emotions?
a. sadness, disgust, and joy b. anger, fear, and happiness
c. shame, guilt, and embarrassment d. surprise, sadness, and anger
36. When do children begin to use personal pronouns for the first time (e.g., “I,” “me,” etc.) and refer to themselves by their own names?
a. 9 months b. 12 months c. 18 months d. 24 months
37. What percentage of North American children have at least one dental cavity by age five years?
38. What is the brain system that is involved in attention?
c. reticular formation d. corpus callosum
39. Which of the following elements is responsible for the growth of strong bones and teeth?
a. calcium b. zinc
40. What is the name of the Piagetian substage in which children are first capable of representational thought and of using symbols to represent the world?
a. formal operations
b. representational operations c. systematic thought
d. symbolic function
41. What is one of the criticisms that other cognitive theorists and researchers have regarding Piaget’s theory of cognitive development during the preoperational stage? They believe that development is actually much more .
a. vacillating and not predictable b. stable and rarely changed
c. stage-like and less continuous
d. continuous and much less stage-like
42. Children from what group in the United States especially benefited cognitively from preschool?
a. families who had parents who were professionals b. affluent families
c. Midwestern families d. low-income families
43. What is defined as the practices that parents exhibit in relation to their children and their beliefs about these practices?
a. child–parent practices
b. parenting learning strategies c. parenting styles
d. discipline strategies
44. In what types of cultures do parents expect that their authority will be obeyed without question and without requiring an explanation?
a. Western cultures
b. traditional cultures
c. nontraditional cultures d. native cultures