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Abiotic Factors

Abiotic Factors

Abiotic Factors

Abiotic Factors – physiscal & chemical factors in the environment that are nonliving; determines the types of plants & animals that will establish themselves and thrive

Active Transport – cell uses energy to move individual molecules across cell membrane for balance

Amphibians – delicate and permeable skin; oviparous; start out with gills, then have lungs as adults

Anaphase – third phase of mitosis; 1/2 of chromosomes goes one way and the other way

Angiosperms – plants that have flowers

Animal Kingdom – all multi-celled organisms; NO CHLOROPHYLL; feeds on existing organic material; most complex tissues & can move about; eukaryotic; NO CELL WALL; has exoskeleton or shell; doesn’t create their own food

Apical Meristem – shoot that helps the plant increase in length

Arthropods – joint-footed animals; have exoskeletons; molt; several jointed walking legs; nervous system; they metemorph; open circulatory system; SPIDERS, CENTIPEDES

Autotrophic – makes its own food

Autotrophs – produce their own food

Bacteria – enter through break of skin; contaminated food/water; inhalation; reproduces rapidly; produces toxins that kill host tissues; BUBONIC PLAGUE

Bad bacteria – killed by the penicillin developed from a fungus

Biochemistry – the study of substances and processes occurring in living things; diseases and drugs to cure them

Biophysics – Applies the laws of physics to explain the phenomena of biology

Biotic Factors – living components of the environment that affect the ecology of an area; predator/prey, producer/consumer

Botany – study of PLANTS

Carbohydrates – compounds made of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen

Carbon – element found in all living things

Cell – basic organizational unit of all living things; unique to each organism; helps organisms grow & survive

Cellulose – makes up cells and tissues of plants; most common organic materials

Central Nervous System (CNS) – brain and spinal cord



Chelonia – members have shells; live in climates that are warm enough; found near water or on land; TURTLES, TORTOISES

Chlorophyll – responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis; the energy breaks down water into hydrogen & oxygen to form ATP molecules

Chloroplasts – makes plants green; food producers of a plant cell; has 2 membranes that contain and protect inner parts; have chlorophyll, DNA, ribosomes, and enzymes

Chromatin – Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell

Chromosomes – structures inside the nucleus of a cell made up primarily of DNA and proteins; carry genes; humans= 46 chromosomes

Circulatory System – provides fresh oxygen through blood; oxygen carried by this system

Conifers – trees that thrive in northern latitudes & have cones; PINE, CEDAR;EVERGREENS; very tall and strong

Consumers – eats plants(herbivores), eats herbivores(carnivores), eats both (omnivores)

Cotyledons – seed leaf or food package for the developing plant

Crocodilia – can grow large; alligators & crocodiles; found near water

Cycads – sturdy plants with big, waxy fronds that make them look like ferns or palms; survive in harsh conditions

Cytology – study of CELLS

Decomposer – eats dead things and returns nutrients to soil

Dicot – seeds w/ 2 cotyledons; everyday flowers w/ 4-5 petals and extremely complex leaves w/ veins; ROSES, SUNFLOWERS

Digestive System – mouth & pharynx used to swallow food/drink; breathe

Earth’s Life-Sustaining System – water(gas, solid, liquid) carbon(basis of life) greenhouse effect atmosphee & electromagnetic field(protect from harmful radiation) earth’s relationship to sun & moon water + carbon + nutrients(sustenance for life)

Ecology – relationship of living organisms to their environments

Emphysema – smoking tobacco; destroys tissue in lungs



Endoskeleton – inside the body; made up of bones; supports body, provides framework; protects inner organs

Energy – flows in one direction- from the sun, through photosynthetic organisms, algae, then herbivores, carnivores and decomposers.

Ethology – study of ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

Eukaryotic cells – have nucleus; controls eating, movement, reproduction

FIsh – most primitive; group from which all other groups evolved; breathe with gills, cold-blooded; fins and scales; oviparous

Flowers – attract organisms that can help pollinate the plant & distribute seeds; some also produce fruit

Food chain – series of events that happens when one organism consumes another to survive

Freshwater Invertebrate – lives in lakes and rivers; WORMS AT BOTTOM OF WATER

Fungi – feeds on healthy tissues; sends rootlike tendrils into tissues; RINGWORM

Fungi Kingdom – no chlorophyll; doesn’t make their own food; reproduces asexually or sexually; made up of filaments; MUSHROOMS; eukaryotic; HAS CELL WALL

Genes – hereditary units of material that are transmitted from one generation to the next; undergo mutations; recombined w/ other genes; determine the nature of an organism(shape, size, color); come in pairs

Genetics – heredity as it relates to the transmission of genes

Genetics – how characteristics are transmitted from one generation to another; Gregor Mendel

Genotype – genetic makeup of an organism/individual; determines hair color

Good bacteria – helps plants absorb nitrogen needed for growth

Gregor Mendel – father of genetics; discovered the 3 laws of heredity that explain how genetics work(law of segregation, law of independent assortment, law of dominance)

Gymnosperms – plants w/ vascular systems and seeds but NO FLOWERS

Hershey-Chase Experiment(1952) – Alfred Hershey & Martha Chase; showed that DNA is the genetic material that transfers info for inheritance; used a virus that infects bacteria to infect E-Coli

Heterotrophic – eats other things

Heterotrophs – organisms that cannot make their own food

Histology – study of TISSUES OF PLANTS AND CELLS



Hunters(Predators) – carnivorous; territorial; equipped to capture; use minimum amt. of energy for each capture; never kill more than they can eat

Interphase – normal state of the cell; resting stage between divisions

Invertebrates – animals with no internal skeletons

Leaves – site for photosynthesis; connected to the rest of the plant by a vascular system

Lipids – insoluble in water; 3 types: fat, phospholipids, estrogen

Locomotion – moving from one place to place in the environment

Mammals – highly evolved vertebrates; fur; warm-blooded; viviparous-give birth to live young; four- legged; live on ground, water, or fly

Marine Invertebrate – lives in oceans and seas; JELLYFISH; OCTOPUS

Marsupials – give birth to live young; babies mature in pouches; KANGAROOS

Membrane – composed of phospholipids

Metaphase – second phase of mitosis; different pieces align themselves for split; DNA lines up; centrioles send out tubules to connect to centromere

Microbes – smallest,simplest and most abundant organisms; can be harmful or helpful; microscope required to see; BACTERIA/FUNGI; can eat other things or make their own food

Mitochondria – Powerhouse of the cell; takes in nutrients, breaks them down, creates energy; found in all eukaryotic cells; found in cytoplasm of cell; PRODUCES ATP

Mitosis – duplication of a cell and all of its parts; has a life cycle of 5 phases

Mold – zygote fungi that reproduces w/ a stalk, but releases zygospheres

Moneran Kingdom – prokaryotes; just 1 chromosome; reproduces asexually; has flagella; either BACTERIA or blue-green algae

Monocots – simple flowering plants; GRASSES; have 3 petals on their flowers; their leaves are long strands

Monotremes – lay eggs; first mammals closely related to reptiles; DUCK-BILLED PLATYPUS

Mushrooms – fungus that lives as a group of strands underground that decompose leaves

Mutations – random genetic changes; can be beneficial and result in a different organism over time

Natural Selection – mechanism of evolution; Charles Darwin- said evolution is a slow,gradual process



Nervous System – divided into 2 parts; central nervous system & peripheral nervous system; SENSES AND ACTIONS- senses something & acts upon it; interacts w/ every other system in the body

Nuclear Envelope – surrounds nucleus; allows RNA & proteins to pass through

Nucleic Acids – large molecules composed of large number of simpler molecules

Nutrition – obtaining, ingesting, and digesting foods

Organelles – groups of complex molecules that help a cell survive; larger the cell, more organelles it needs to live


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