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No Representation in Biological Brains Discussion

No Representation in Biological Brains Discussion

No Representation in Biological Brains Discussion

Length: 2250 Words (~9 pages)
Delivery Time : 7 Days
Time for requesting changes : Standard 7 days
Paper instructions : I need you to write a 2250 words cognitive science essay on 1 of these 6 topics:
1. “The behavior of agents acting in a real world is not and cannot be caused by goals.”
2. “Classical cognitive models of knowledge representation (we mean here scripts, semantic hierarchies, spreading activation models, production systems, and similar conventions) tell us nothing about how knowledge is embodied in biological brains.”
3. “The behaviorists were right! All cognition is associations! (which is not to say they were right about other stuff. Focus on the idea of associations)”
4. “For agents with flexible behavior living in a world, the name of the game is — opportunism”
5. “Behavior viewed by an observer looking at the outside of an organism must be produced by isomorphic mechanisms on the inside of an organism (the mechanism on the inside must be “just like” the behavior on the outside).”
6. “There are no representations in biological brains.”
Each essay topic is presented as a radical claim. Your job is to respond to the claim with a position paper. You may agree, disagree, or partially agree/disagree with any claim. Part of your task will consist of evaluating the legitimacy of the premises behind the claim itself. Don’t forget also to define those terms appearing in the claim that are relevant to your response. How words are defined and used affects how the claim that they support should be assessed. However, it is not necessary, or even ideal, to specify the meaning of every single term. Pick the ones that matter to your evaluation. Your goal is to convince the reader that your take on the issue is the right one. You will do this best by providing logical arguments supported by empirical evidence.
Base your writing on as many sources as possible from these given sources:
1. 1. David Vernon. 2014. Artificial Cognitive Systems. Ch. 2. Paradigms of cognitive science.
2. Richard Nisbett et al. Cultural systems of thought: Holistic vs analytic cognition
3. Paul Moser and Arnold vander Nat. Human knowledge.
4. Richard Bernstein. The Pragmatic Turn. Ch. 5. Pragmatism, objectivity, and truth
5. Plotkin, Darwin Machines. Ch. 4. Behavior without thought
6. *Tallis. Aping Mankind. Ch. 6. The sighted watchmaker
7. Susan Oyama.. The Ontogeny of Information. Ch. 2. The Origin and transmission of form: The gene as the vehicle of constancy.
8. Susan Oyama. Evolution’s Eye. Ch. 3. Ontogeny and the central dogma: Do we need the concept of genetic programming in order to have an evolutionary perspective?
9. William Bechtel. Mental Mechanisms. Chs 1 and 4
10. Allen Newell. Precis of Unified Theories of Cognition
11. .*John Symons and Paco Calvo. Systematicity. An overview. In The Architecture of Cognition eds. Paco Calvo and John Symons
12. Pattie Maes, “Behavior-Based AI,” in From Animals to Animats II
13. Pfeifer & Scheier, from Understanding Intelligence, Ch. 7. The subsumption architecture.
14. Pfeifer & Scheier. from Understanding Intelligence, Ch. 11. The principle of parallel, loosely coupled processes.
15. *Gary Klein. Streetlights and Shadows
16. William Powers. Perceptual Control Theory for Beginners
17. Rogers and McClelland
18. Engel. Where’s the action?
19. Dale Purves. Brains: How they seem to Work. Ch. 13. How brains seems to work
20. . *Freeman and Skarda. Representations — Who needs them
21. *Nolfi and Floreano. Chapter 6
22. *Michael Anderson. Précis of After Phrenology: Neural Reuse and the Interactive Brain
23. Suzanne Oosterwijk et al. States of mind: Emotions, body feelings, and thoughts share distributed neural networks
24. Schank.
25. Dreyfus, Hubert. “A phenomenological …”
26. Tim Van Gelder. What might cognition be if not computation
27. Jeffrey L. Elman. An alternative view of the mental lexicon
28. Gary Klein. Streetlights and Shadows
29. Timothy Rogers and James McClelland. Semantic Cognition
30. Roger Schank. Tell Me a Story.
31. Shaun Gallagher. Enactivist Interventions.

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