Community in health nursing
In this module, you will complete a full assessment of your own community.
Defining the Community
Your community can be any geographically defined county, city, or town. Clearly delineate the following dimensions before starting the process of community assessment:
Describe the population that is being assessed?
What is/are the race(s) of this population within the community?
Are there boundaries of this group? If so, what are they?
Does this community exist within a certain city or county?
Are there general characteristics that separate this group from others?
Education levels, birth/death rates, age of deaths, insured/uninsured?
Where is this group located geographically…? Urban/rural?
Why is a community assessment being performed? What purpose will it serve?
How will information for the community assessment be collected?
After the community has been defined, the next phase is assessment. The following items describe several resources and methods that can be used to gather and generate data. These items serve as a starting point for data collection. This is not an all-inclusive list of resources and methods that may be used when a community assessment is conducted.
The time frame for completion of the assessment may influence which methods are used. Nonetheless, these items should be reviewed to determine what information will be useful to collect about the community that is being assessed. It is not necessary to use all of these resources and methods; however, use of a variety of methods is helpful when one is exploring the needs of a community.
Data Gathering (collecting information that already exists)
Demographics of the Community
When demographic data are collected, it is useful to collect data from a variety of levels so comparisons can be made.
If the population that is being assessed is located within a specific setting, it may be best to contact that agency to retrieve specific information about that population.
The following resources provide a broad overview of the demographics of a city, county, or state:
State and County Quick Facts—Easy access to facts about people, business, and geography, based on U.S. Census data: https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/US/PST045219
Obtain information about a specific city or county on these useful websites: www.epodunk.com and www.city-data.com
Information from Government Agencies
Healthy People 2020—this resource is published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It identifies health improvement goals and objectives for the country to be reached by the year 2020: http://www.healthypeople.gov/
National Center for Health Statistics—this agency is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; this website provides statistical information about the health of Americans: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/index.htm
National Vital Statistics System: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss.htm
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)—The CDC website contains a large amount of information related to the health of the American population. The search engine within this website can be used to find relevant information: http://www.cdc.gov
Federal agencies with statistical programs: http://www.fedstats.gov/agencies
Every state in the United States has its own specific health improvement plan and goals that are based on the Healthy People 2020 document. This information may be available on the state health department website.
State and local health departments provide information related to vital statistics for the community.